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Солнце оставляет Землю раз в сто миллионов лет без защиты
15.08.2012


Американские исследователи выяснили, что приблизительно раз в сто млн. лет диаметр гелиосферы становится несколько меньше диаметра орбиты Земли. В результате наша планета оказывается беззащитна перед межзвездной пылью и лучами, что может стать следствием ледниковых периодов.

Ученые построили в рамках исследования компьютерную модель этих изменений гелиосферы, то Солнце оставляет Землю раз в сто миллионов лет без защиты есть региона, в котором солнечный ветер двигается со сверхзвуковой скоростью непосредственно  при прохождении нашей Солнечной системы сквозь галактические регионы разной плотности. Им в результате удалось выяснить, что при встрече с плотным сгустком пыли диаметр гелиосферы может существенно уменьшаться.

Атмосфера Земли в результате оказывается перед космическими лучами и межзвездной пылью беззащитна, они повреждают озоновый слой. Скопление в верхних слоях атмосферы пыли приводит к понижению количества солнечного тепла, которое попадает на поверхность Земли, и, быть может, к возникновению ледникового периода.

Аналогичные расчеты, по словам исследователей, которые были проведены для красных карликов, то есть для самого многочисленного из известных класса звезд, показывают, что светила эти защищают лучше Солнца собственные планеты. Так, к примеру, планета в зоне, пригодной для обитания у подобной звезды не оказывается никогда вне границ ее "гелиосферы". Связано это с тем, что эта зона располагается ближе у красных карликов, нежели у желтых к которым и относится Солнце.

Но это не значит, что красные карлики для существования жизни наиболее пригодны. Недавнее исследование, которое было проведено группой астрономов Университета Вилланова, выявило, что оранжевые карлики выступают, скорей всего, самыми пригодными непосредственно для поиска планет вокруг них, на которых жизнь и может существовать. Выяснилось, что красные карлики испускают часто потоки заряженных частиц, которые не способна выдержать жизнь, в привычном для нас понимании.

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